Metabolic Engineering in Plants. Obtaining natural plant products through the application of Biotechnological techniques.
( Pending date )
Metabolic engineering studies all reactions involved in the metabolism of plants and regulatory enzymes. Plants use a chemical language to interact with other living beings that coincides spatially and temporally. The compounds that mediate these interactions are called allelochemicals and belong to the group of so-called secondary metabolites, natural products synthesized by plants that are not considered "essential" for the basic processes of life (in contrast to primary metabolism). Recent advances in the field of plant biotechnology and the use of tools such as proteomics, allow establish efficient to obtain metabolites of commercial interest strategies. Natural products plant compounds are considered "seed" for drug development; on the other hand in the world the use of botanicals for the control of pests and diseases, because of their chemical diversity and are supposed to limited initial toxicity is enhanced. Proteins, molecules of primary metabolism, are essential to plant survival. Including proteases that catalyze the hydrolysis of peptide bonds of proteins, play a key role in the pathogenesis; involved in plant development, senescence, programmed cell death and response to environmental stresses. Protease inhibitors plant (IPP) have a key role in endogenous defense systems, regulate the balance of proteolytic activity and participate in the exogenous defense. The excellent properties of proteases and inhibitors determine their extensive use in various fields of industry, medicine and agriculture. The plants, together produce more than 100,000 molecular weight substances also known low as secondary metabolites. Secondary metabolites in plants are classified by their biosynthetic pathways into three groups: fenilpropanoides (or phenolics), terpenoids (or isoprenoid) and alkaloids. These terpenes, lignans, alkaloids, sugars, steroids, fatty acids, etc. are Such chemical diversity is a consequence of the evolutionary process leading to the selection of species with better defenses against microbial attack or predation by insects and animals. Today it is known that these secondary metabolites play an important role in the defense mechanism of plants. Therefore in recent years there are multiple directed to the use of plants as a source of natural products that enable the development of new drugs and the development of sustainable agriculture with the use of environmentally friendly techniques research.
PhD. Martha Hernández de la Torre, Centro de Bioplantas.
Universidad de Ciego de Ávila, Cuba.
Number of hours: 60